П. Петков. Жордановата канонична форма – митове и реалност

Статията е 2 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

Key Words: Jordan Canonical Form; algorithm of Kublanovskaya-Ruhe-Kågström; Weyr Canonical Form.

Abstract. The paper presents some comments about the development and implementation of numerical algorithms for finding the Jordan canonical form of a square matrix. A short history of the algorithm of Kublanovskaya-Ruhe-Kågström is given. This algorithm uses an orthogonal reduction to staircase form in order to find the Segre characteristic of the multiple eigenvalue (the dimensions of the Jordan blocks pertaining to this eigenvalue). It is noted that this algorithm actually finds the Weyr characteristic and Weyr canonical form of the original matrix. That is why the program of Kågström and Ruhe can determine reliably the numerical structure of the given matrix. It is argued that in most cases this program can produce an accurate result for the Jordan form although this is in contradiction with the opinion of many researchers working in the field of matrix computations. Three myths concerning the numerical determination of the Jordan form are discussed. An 8th order example is given which demonstrates that the program system MATLAB® (and LAPACK package) produce results for the multiple eigenvalues which contain large errors, while the Kågström-Ruhe algorithm finds these eigenvalues to full machine precision. In such cases the eigensystem problem is ill-conditioned and some regularization technic is necessary to use. It is insisted that the Kågström-Ruhe algorithm is well suited for such a purpose. The paper ends by the note of G. W. Stewart that“… as a mathematical probe the Jordan canonical form is still useful, and reports of its dead are greatly exaggerated”.


В. Стефанова-Стоянова, К. Стоянов. Същност, свойства и предимства на интелигентните разпределителни енeргийни мрежи със съхранение на електрическа енергия

Статията е 3 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

Key Words: Smart Grid; distributed grid networks; intelligent management; energy storage; microgrid; ICT; smart home; smart sities.

Abstract. In the future, the methods and technical means for intelligent control of final energy consumption by economic criteria in real time, based on the integration of electricity and information networks, will become a priority for the construction and operation of Smart Energy Networks (SMART GRIDS), i.e. Energy Internet. Thus, energy and information processes in micro-networks must be considered as interconnected. Electricity storage is a key element of future smart distributed energy networks. For energy companies, the key pursued goals for the development of Smart Grid technologies are: reduction of energy losses; increasing the timeliness and completeness of payment for consumed energy resources; control of unevenness of the electric load schedule; improving the efficiency of asset management of energy companies; improving the quality of the integration of renewable and distributed generation facilities into the power system; improving the reliability of the energy system in the event of emergencies; improving the visualization of energy infrastructure facilities. The key tasks to be solved by energy consumers in the implementation of Smart Grid technologies are: improving consumer access to energy infrastructure; improving the reliability of power supply to all categories of consumers; improving the quality of energy resources; creation of a modern interface for interaction between energy consumers and its suppliers; the opportunity for the consumer to act as a full participant in the energy market; enhanced opportunities for consumers to manage energy consumption and reduce the level of payments for consumed energy resources. Governments and regulators of the energy industry are striving to achieve the following goals through the development of Smart Grid technologies: increasing the level of satisfaction of energy consumers with the quality and cost of energy supply; ensuring a stable economic position of enterprises in the energy industry; ensuring the modernization of fixed assets of the energy industry without a significant increase in tariffs. From the presented information it can be concluded that Smart-Grid is a system that is able to self-monitor and provide reports for all participants in the network (its status, needs, etc.) and complete information about the electricity generated and transmitted in every aspect: efficiency, losses or economic benefits; This is especially important for liberalized electricity markets, where trade is hour-ahead. In this way, the smart system builds a load profile of each user and can accurately redistribute prepaid energy from exchanges. The surplus can be accumulated in a storage battery module or in heat energy in the consumers’ boilers, depending on what the consumer or the consumer group has. In case of lack of (requested) energy, when the consumption has to be limited, the system has variants of strategy in which it either stops powerful consumers, without special significance (eg electric water heaters) or switches consumers to energy storage, until the next period/hour, thus the system includes as an energy generator the accumulator unit for storage of electricity and delivers in the network the insufficient amount of energy, ie. this user is active, i.e. it consumes and produces energy. This would reduce the need to maintain a cold reserve and make the energy produced cheaper. The authors study the behavior of a real SG system developed by them, have a lake of data on its operation for several years and prepare a patent solution for cheap home smart composite batteries. The concept of using smart controllers as perceptrons – elements of neural networks, in which SG can be trained and respond autonomously as effectively as possible, is also the author’s. The more modern and up-to-date perspective that the authors apply is to use neural network technology and machine learning to predict consumer behavior and energy generation in generating capacity, and to develop a strategy for the use of storage capacity (energy storage) as generating ones in order to balance the networks and use the cheapest source of electricity for a given period. It is also possible to apply purely economic approaches such as clearing, in the supplier-consumer relationship, consumer-consumer, many users to supplier. Thus, networks of pure distribution, if they have elements of smart grid, have energy storage capacity, can become highly efficient generating capacity to provide third parties (consumers, which can be entire networks) capacity, which far exceed their own consumption, but this will be the subject of a separate article by the authors.


Н. Делийски, Н. Тричков, Д. Ангелски, Ж. Гочев, Н. Тумбаркова. Изчисляване на температурното поле в обли дървени материали съхранявани на открит склад

Статията е 4 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

Кey Words: 2D model; atmospheric air temperature; beech logs; thermal treatment; model based control.

Abstract. This paper describes an approach for mathematical modeling and research of the 2D non-stationary temperature distribution and average mass temperature of logs stored in an open warehouse and influenced by the periodically changing atmospheric temperature near them. Mathematical descriptions of the thermo-physical properties (specific heat capacity, density, thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer coefficient in radial and longitudinal anatomical directions) of the non-frozen wood and also of the periodically changing during many days and nights temperature of the atmospheric air as a processing medium have been presented. They are introduced in the convective boundary conditions of our own 2D non-linear mathematical model of the logs’ heating and cooling processes. For the numerical solving of the model a software program has been prepared in the calculation environment of Visual FORTRAN Professional developed by Microsoft. Results from simulative investigation of the 2D non-stationary temperature distribution and average mass temperature of non-frozen beech logs with semi-industrial dimensions (diameter of 0.24 m and length of 0.48 m), moisture content of 0.6 kg·kg-1, and initial temperature of 20°C during their five days and nights continuous alternating heating and cooling at sinusoidal change of the air temperature with initial values of 20°C and different amplitudes are presented and analyzed. The presented approach for the computation of the 2D temperature field in logs and their average mass temperature at periodically changing ambient air temperature can help for the accurate determination of the initial temperature of the logs before their thermal treatment, depending on the duration of the logs’ storing in an open warehouse. This approach is suitable for application in the software of systems for optimized model based automatic control of the thermal treatment processes of logs and other wood materials. The obtained results can be used for development of energy saving technological regimes with an optimal duration depending on the precise determined initial temperature of the materials of each charge subjected to thermal treatment.


В. Димитров, К. Спасов, С. Сярова. Анализ на обхвата на концептуален модел за споделен център за операции по киберсигурността на индустриални управляващи системи

Статията е 5 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

Key Words: Cyber; security; operations; center; ICS; shared.

Abstract. The article offers a analysis of the scope of a conceptual model for a Shared Industrial Control Sys-tems (ICS) CyberSecurity Operations Center (SOC). The analysis of design of the conceptual model is aimed at bridging the gaps in existing market solutions and meeting the needs of the entire cycle of cybersecurity en-gagements. It ensures continuous proportional ICS protection against malicious actors and in accordance with regulations and standards. The focus of the research is on the three basic functions of cybersecurity cycle – proactive functions, security operations management, and cybersecurity incident response. The aim of the study is to increase the effectiveness of cybersecurity for all Shared SOC subscribers, to overcome the problem of staff shortages, and allow each company to focus on its core business. The applied methodology is based on the Fea-ture Driven Development approach, empirical experience from the implementation of cyber defense systems, and interdisciplinary vision. The proposed analysis provides reference points for synthesizing a private solution for multiple clients of Shared SOC, a basis for concept of operations and preparation for technical design. The idea of a Shared SOC provides a powerful tool for meeting the requirement for multi-layered cyber protection, which is already a fact in many regulatory measures. Shared SOC creates conditions for all subscribers with ICS to increase their level of maturity in cybersecurity.


Р. Хрисчев. Информационната сигурност в системите за планиране на корпоративни ресурси (ERP)

Статията е 6 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

Key Words: ERP systems; data security; security policy.

Abstract. This paper introduces Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems from its evolution through architecture to its products regarding the security point of view. ERP is a technology that integrates most business processes and covers all information flows in the organization. ERP is a prerequisite and tool with which the enterprise can automate its core business activities, reduce the complexity and cost of their interaction, force the company to start reengineering business processes to optimize its work and generate a successful business. But modern business is more and more open to communication with external organizations, especially through the Internet. Therefore ERP system is becoming a system with high vulnerability and high confidentiality, in which security is a critical aspect. The main characteristics of ERP systems are presented. The largest ERP vendors have already integrated their security solutions; many vendors are using specialized hardware and software solutions. The new e-business requires the development and implementation of e-features of ERP systems (e-orders, e-shop, e-store, e-invoice, etc.), focuses on business between companies and customers. New technologies – Cloud computing, IoT, Block Chain are opportunities to make ERP highly integrated, more intelligent, more collaborative, cloud-based. Based on the literature of the biggest developers of this type of systems are presented popular security solutions for ERP systems. The standard architecture of the systems, the security policies guaranteeing secure access to the information are presented. Methods for data transfer with remote access to the systems are considered. The evolution of database development from structured (SQL) via unstructured (NoSQL) to blockchain is shown. The methods for ensuring secure access to user information used by the developers of ERP systems, such as permissions, roles, authentication, are summarized. The main challenges to information security and the prospects for ensuring data security are outlined.


новости, информация, общество
Н. Николов. 50-годишен юбилей на катедра „Автоматизация на производството“ при Техническия университет – Варна

Статията е 7 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

През 2020 г. се навършват 50 години от създаването на катедра “Автоматизация на производството” в Техническия университет – Варна, и на едноименната специалност – автоматизация на производството (АП). Катедрата е създадена през септември 1970 г. като част от състава на Електротехническия факултет на Висшия машинно-електротехнически институт – Варна (сега Технически университет – Варна). Първият ръководител на катедрата е проф. д-р инж. Светослав Николов Колев (тогава доцент).


in memoriam
Доц. инж. Веселин Спиридонов

Статията е 8 от 8 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 1-2, 2020 г.

На 81 години почина високоуважаваният наш колега доц. Веселин Спиридонов. Той е сред пионерите в развитието на компютърната наука, техника и технологии в България.


постижения и приложения
Д. Николов, М. Лазарова. Метаевристични методи за оптимизация при планиране на ресурси и управление на бизнес процеси

Статията е 6 от 9 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 3, 2019 г.

Key Words: Enterprise resource planning; business process management; optimization; job shop scheduling; metaheuristics; machine learning.

Abstract. The paper presents a metaheuristics based framework for resource planning optimization and business project management. Possibilities for utilization of metaheuristic algorithms are presented in view of solving job shop scheduling problem for resource planning in ERP. A general framework for resource planning and business process management is suggested that utilizes several metaheuristics approaches. The proposed framework allows integration in ERP based on development of an optimization agent in multiagent framework.


В. Димитров, Л. Попов. Метод за пълна оперативна идентификация на инерционни обекти с изменящи се параметри

Статията е 1 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Key Words: Aperiodic unit; time constant; transmission coefficient; parallel correction.

Abstract. A method for full operational identification of objects or units approximated to an aperiodic unit of the first order where electromagnetic inertia or time-delay are negligible. These are low-power electromechanical systems and small chamber furnaces. The method identifies the time constant T and the transmit coefficient k on the object. Robust control of a first-inertia object is developed – a small electric furnace with forced cooling, for which a predetermined transition process of cooling the material has to be provided. The corresponding parallel correction scheme is implemented, which turns the object into a deinterleaving tracking system.


Е. Димитрова. Диспечерска GPS система за мониторинг и управление в автомобилния транспорт

Статията е 2 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Кey Words: Dispatching system; GPS; navigation; transport vehicles.

Abstract. A GPS dispatching system for monitoring and managing of transport vehicles has been developed. It is reliable, easy to use, offers a wide range of features that can be used to optimize financial costs. It increases the productivity and efficiency of work, reduces fuel costs and eliminates abuses. It is available in different variants depending on the investments available. Varied modules can be added and security, navigation and driver monitoring can be ensured.


В. Христов, С. Петров. Управление на система за следене на слънцето чрез микроконтролер Ардуино

Статията е 3 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Key Words: DC motor; solar tracking system; Arduino; photoresistor.

Abstract. This article presents the development of a two-axis platform for laboratory-based solar tracking system. The platform has the ability to rotate on the horizontal and vertical surfaces by two direct current motor. The use of an open source Arduino microcontroller makes it convenient to experiment with a variety of platform control algorithms and maximize performance. Its compact size makes it mobile to experiment with in different work environments. An algorithm is used to monitor the illumination of four photo resistors located on a cross.


С. Лекова, Д. Гочева. Статистически анализ на данни от измерване

Статията е 4 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Key Words: Statistical analysis of data; linear and rank correlation; analysis of variance.

Abstract. Good laboratory practice requires laboratories to ensure the quality of analyzes and assess the extent of human exposure to different chemicals and reagents. The subject of research and analysis are data from measurement of samples between two laboratories, by two different methods, in the processing of ore in the Ellatzite-Med AD Mine Complex. Of particular importance is the reliable measurement of the products (concentrations) from the flotation process (content of copper in the ore, intermediate products, concentrate and waste) as well as the production of molybdenum (feed, concentrate and waste). As a result of the sampling and depending on the characteristic to be determined and the test method, the concentration of the identifiable element is measured differently and with different technical means. The statistical analysis of data of parallel measurements from two or three laboratories involves calculating a linear or rank correlation and analyzing how significant the influence of a laboratory factor is, as well as studying and modeling the relationship between the presence of chemical elements in the ore, waste and concentrate in the process of laboratory control.


Т. Тодоров. Идентификация на слънчогледово олио със система електронен нос

Статията е 5 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Key Words: Gas sensors; gas sensors array; electronic nose; food; quality control; sunflower oil.

Abstract. Тhis work presents a study and identification of oil through multisensor system electronic nose. The system is built on the basis of eight gas sensors, reacting to different types of gas. With the help of the system, a study of sunflower oil produced from pressed sunflower seed and extrusion of oil cake (the remainder of the primary pressing) was carried out. The data obtained from the study is used to train an artificial neural network. After the training, artificial neural network successfully recognizes the test sample.


Р. Райнова, М. Лазарова, А. Алексиева-Петрова. Многослойна мултимодална архитектура за управление на процеси при разпознаване на емоции

Статията е 6 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Key Words: Emotion recognition; emotion detection;intelligent agents; multimodal analyses;multilayered architecture.

Abstract. The paper presents different approaches for emotion detection and recognition. A system infrastructure for emotion recognition is suggested based on a multilayered multimodal architecture with intelligent agents. The agents have diverse goals, utilizes different modalities and employ various algorithms for emotion detection and recognition. Based on the results of the agents’ operation a neutral model of the multimodal input data is generated that is used for emotion recognition by detecting deformations with respect to the reconstructed model. The proposed system infrastructure allows autonomous operation, utilization of the most suitable recognition algorithms for certain input data and generation of neutral models for the examined object.


обучение и квалификация
В. Вълканов, М. Петров. Приложение на блокови вериги за следене и съхранение на активности в сферата на образованието

Статията е 7 от 7 в списание АВТОМАТИКА И ИНФОРМАТИКА 4, 2019 г.

Key Words: Blockchain; education; behavior tracking; distributed networks; e-learning.

Abstract. In this article, we are going to introduce a model for integrating an intended interface platform for storing information regarding the behavior of students, over a blockchain network. The state of the art will describe the actual concept of the technology and the main article will introduce the in-dept architecture of a software prototype UniChain a distributed clause based blockchain network for storing behavior information. The main purpose of the article is to address a practical approach for implementing a theoretical concept over education and to propose an implementation solution for a real-world problem.