100 years PID controller
K. Boshnakov, M. Hadjiski. What Makes the PID Controller So Successful already 100 Years

Key Words: Efficiency/price; life cycle; industrial automation; PID controller; design.

Abstract. A scientific and engineering achievement has a chance to become a sustainable influencer of industrial innovation only if it is accepted by business and has the resources to respond adequately to the dramatically changing driving forces of technological development. Otherwise, it gradually turns into a useful, respectable, often widespread, but conservative, even retro achievement, a product of the past. Fortunately, the modern Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller, with its already 100-year history, can be referred to the category of sustainably developing achievements. With its more than 95% distribution in the operating basic control systems, it continues to have a significant impact on industrial automation. The present study substantiates the main arguments forming the positive answer to the question why is the PID controller still so successful for 100 years. The comparative analysis of the results of research on the quality of control of dynamic systems under different objects, criteria, limitations, uncertainty, shows that control systems with a PID controller are good enough in most cases of process control and beyond, and when requires a more complex solution. The reasons for the significant contribution to the wide acceptance of the PID controller by business, management and operational personnel are analyzed as the fact that the PID controller is simple, intuitively clear and easy to understand. It is justified why in PID controller systems, the performance/cost ratio is high, with particular attention paid to the design process. It is shown that one of the main reasons for the long-term success of the PID controller is its continuous functional and technological development using modern scientific achievements from various fields (artificial intelligence, data science, large systems), but remaining faithful to the fundamental principles of classic PID control.