Key Words: Basic control; industrial automation; operating technology; parametric tuning; PID controller.
Abstract. The paper is dedicated to a remarkable date in the development of industrial automation – 2022 marks the 100th anniversary of the publication of Nicholas Minorsky’s paper “Directional Stability of Automatically Steered Bodies” which is unanimously considered the first theoretical study and justification of modern Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. This paper marks the beginning of centuries of practical implementation, theoretical research and engineering innovations that have led to a remarkable achievement – currently over 95% of the basic control circuits of industrial automation are with PID controllers in autonomous, centralized or decentralized implementation. The historical development of the PID controller is a particularly telling example of the effectiveness of their cooperation between researchers, engineers and industrial managers, as a kind of synthesis between scientific and technical feasibility, operational simplicity and economic efficiency. There is every reason to believe that PID controllers will continue to be sustainable in the coming decades, dominated by big data and artificial intelligence technologies. Many of the modern extensions of the PID controller aimed at overcoming its limitations and shortcomings are still in the research stage, but following the centuries-old tradition of ensuring a high value for money, there is no doubt that it will continues to be the main building block at the basic level of industrial automation in the construction of intelligent control systems of arbitrary complexity.