100 years PID controller
M. Hadjiski. 100 Years of Evolution and Prospects for the Development of the PID Controller in the Era of Artificial Intelligence

Key Words: Artificial Intelligence; Big Data; controller synthesis; controller tuning; industrial automation; PID control.

Abstract. The centenary of the PID controller is significant not only with the pioneering article by N. Minorsky, with which he scientifically substantiates its algorithm, structure, components and dynamic behavior. It is an important reminder of a phenomenon in the development of automation – that for an entire century, and especially in its last three-quarters, the PID controller has invariably been the dominant device in industrial automation – a fact that continues to be relevant even now. In the present research, the continuous upward development of the PID controller has been traced, which has always been associated with the constant use of new technologies, methods and technical solutions from the most modern achievements of its time in various fields. The achievements in the development of the classical PID controller have been tracked, which continue to be relevant in a number of cases even now. Particular attention is paid to the problem of tuning the PID controller, which has already an 80-year history since the works of Ziegler and Nichols in 1942, and continues to attract the attention of many researchers applying state-of-the-art methods from the theory of optimization, metaheuristic approaches, machine learning. The main approaches for analytical synthesis of PID and PID-like controllers using classical methods of state-space control theory, including robust synthesis, are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the use of methods using big data and technologies from the field of artificial intelligence for the implementation of nested intelligent structures for hierarchical management of the executive level, on which PID controllers are applied. The trend towards the management of complex compound systems with significantly increased requirements for accuracy and robustness, to overcome the challenges of uncertainty and stochasticity in multi-criteria setting, has been traced. It is shown that the accelerated expansion of the functionality of the lassical PID controller, especially characteristic in the last two decades, has led to a new view and capabilities of the PID control technology, including promising directions such as anticipation and modeling of the surrounding environment, PID controller in open systems, implementing adaptability through switching, diagnostics and fault tolerance, cyber security. Some of the main engineering and business problems that need to be solved in order for the PID controller to continue to enjoy its popularity are indicated: preserving the spirit of simplicity and intuitive clarity, ensuring convenience and efficiency in design and operation, affordable pricess, opportunities for seamless integration into the emerging computer and communication systems in the era of big data and artificial intelligence. Due to the small historical distance, the existing modern results rather outline certain trends and mark promising directions for reaching significant achievements for the practice of industrial automation in the near future.