ecological systems
G. Mihalev, S. Yordanov, H. Stoycheva. Beehive Condition Monitoring System Intended for Application in Beekeeping

Key Words: Beehive monitoring system; precision beekeeping.

Abstract. Honey bees are one of the most important insects for human existence. They have a main role in the production of various agricultural crops, as well as in the development of nature itself. Currently, bee colonies are facing many problems related to climate change, diseases, chemical pollution and most of all human activity regarding the development, production and sustainability of the bee colony. The aim of the present development is to provide a solution or at least to partially suppress certain problems of bee families during their development in their active period, with a minimum expenditure of resources. These problems can be summarized as problems related to the health of the hive, problems related to reproduction and problems related to the production of certain bee products (honey, pollen and wax). A system for monitoring of some bee colonies parameters in real time is proposed, based on cloud services and a microprocessor system with a set of sensors. The obtained information can help the beekeeper take timely action with minimal stress to the bees in the colony. The developed system is based on an ESP32 microcontroller and measures basic parameters, such as internal and external temperature, humidity and weight of the beehive. The data is stored in a cloud structure with a good graphical presentation environment for the purpose of subsequent analysis. Attention is paid to energy saving and communication in difficult to reach places and regions. The architecture of the system and its implementation are described in details. The developed system can be used to monitor the production of honey, prevent the process of swarming, as well as to maintain a high health status of the bee colonies. Results of actual data obtained for the observed values during the active period of development of a beehive are presented. Through the technical and economic analysis, information is given about the achieved socio-economic results.